The Tudors: Power, Passion and Politics edited by Charlotte Bolland is the introductory text to a two venue National Portrait Gallery Tudor exhibition - one in The Holborn Museum, Bath, the other at The Walker Art Gallery , Liverpool - while the National Portrait Gallery is closed for refurbishment.
Physically it is a compact book with clear readable text with chapters on various aspects of the Tudor court its times and its influences for example: The King’s Court - considers the power structure of Henry VIII’s court, Queenship – looks at the challenges Mary and Elizabeth had to become and remain as Queen, Empire – traces the start of England’s empire with Ireland as Henry VIII took control over it.
Each chapter ends with a commentary piece on a specific aspect of the chapter. The King’s Court ends with a piece from Kate Donoghue on Walter Hungerford and the 1533 Buggery Act describing how the Act was used to bring down the authority of the Catholic Church.
The John Blanke Project is the commentary piece to the chapter – A New Dynasty – which discusses Henry VIII need to integrate his ‘fledgling dynasty into the networks of European monarchies’, demonstrated by the ‘extravagant enactment of his chivalric prowess’ as depicted on The Great Tournament Roll of Westminster.
The piece on the Project considers Insights into John Blanke’s Image from the John Blanke Project there are four insights discussed: A Remarkable Portrait, Accepting Difference, John Blanke’s Namesakes and Black British History and John Blanke, supported by presence of Stephen B. Whatley’s drawing Tribute to John Blanke.
The Tudors: Power, Passion and Politics is very readable, accessible book and what makes it particularity approachable is its use of images – portraits, maps and diagrams – the book is packed with images almost every other page has an image. There are many of the well known portraits for which the Tudors are renowned but there many others not so well known personalities such as the pirate Henry Strangeways. A very useful introductory text into the Tudors and their times.
ITV London 6pm News 14th Jan 2022
14th Jan 2022 what an emotional day for me – the unveiling of a Blue Plaque at Trinity Laban Conservatoire in Greenwich Naval College, the site of the Palace of Placentia, or 'pleasant place', one Henry VIII’s favourite palaces.
It was three years ago when Nubian Jak first approached me with the idea of have a Nubian Jaq Community Trust Blue Plaque erected for John Blanke. This was not an easy thing to do as the surviving buildings from Tudor times that John Blanke could be associated with are all listed buildings with tight restrictions on what could ,and could not be attached to them. After three years searching and discussions, we finally reached agreement with English Heritage and Trinity Laban Conservatoire.
The site at Greenwich is very fitting place to remember John Blanke as Henry VIII had a great tilt yard (a courtyard for jousting) made in the grounds of the Palace so that he and his men could practise jousting and hold tournaments. John Blanke would have almost certainly played at those tournaments just as he did at the February 1511 Tournament held at Westminster, where he is shown playing at its opening and closing.
There is already a BBC Plaque to John Blanke but that is in the Tudor area of the Naval College Visitor Centre, the Nubian Jak Community Trust is in the music college a most fitting place to commemorate trumpeter. The plaque is located at the foot of the Hawksmoor Staircase.
The day was additionally special as it was my first public speaking event due to the pandemic in almost two years. It started with a negative Lateral Flow Test a perquisite to attendance and the need to wear a face mask as required by the event’s organisers – the new normality.
I was made very welcome by the staff at Trinity Laban, they made the whole event flow smoothly.
It was an honour to present John Blanke and the Project to such an esteemed audience which included senior members of the Trinity Laban staff, local dignitaries and I was especially honoured to see representatives from the College of Arms and The National Archive there, both of these organisations have played a huge part in making my Project happen. The contributions to the Project were represented by Mark ‘Mr T’ Thompson reading his poem John Blanke.
Mark 'Mr T' Thompson reading his poem
Of course, actually unveiling the Plaque was a great experience but the most moving and memorable part of the day for me was the vicar of St Alfege, the local parish church to the Naval College in Greenwich, the church has a history dating back to 1012. He spoke of the importance of John Blanke to him as he could show to the many Black children who attended his church and its primary school a Black presence in Tudor times. In doing so they could see themselves as being part of British history dating back 500 years, a key objective of the Project as the children will, as the Project’s strapline say ‘Imagine a Black Tudor trumpeter’
I would like to close by thanking Nubian Jak Community Trust, English Heritage and Trinity Laban Conservatoire for making the John Blanke Plaque happen and for allowing me to be part of its unveiling.
From left to Right
Mark Mr T Thompson (poet) , Michael Ohajuru, Jane Sidell (Historic England) ,David Bahanovich (Assistant Director of Music, Trinity Laban), Robyn Bignall-Donnlley (Trinity Laban Communications Manager), Nubian Jak
Michael I. Ohajuru
15th January 2022
When I took over Historic Royal Places - Hampton Court - Twitter account for the day to tell the John Blanke story not everyone was as pleased as I was....
I now find out none of these accounts exist today, they've either been deleted or suspended ...
1507 was understood to be the earliest reference to John Blanke in Henry VIII’s court accounts where he is recorded as being paid wages for November that year. I believed an earlier date had been found for him in a record - TNA LC 2/1 126 - of him playing at the funeral of Arthur, Henry VIII’s brother in 1502. So, I believed 1502 replaced 1507 as the earliest reference to John Blanke.
This is wrong as the document - TNA LC 2/1 126 - referred to Henry VII’s funeral in 1509. A description of TNA LC 2/1 28 is a record from Arthur’s funeral in 1502 had been incorrectly associated with TNA LC 2/1 126 a record from Henry VII’s funeral.
1502 is not the earliest date of John Blanke in Tudor court records , the earliest date remains 1507.
I was delighted to hold an in person John Blanke Live! Workshop , with my partner the artist Ebun Culwin for the first time in almost two years at Hythe Town Hall, as part of Folkestone’s Black History Month OriginsUntold. However the weather was not the most delightful. It was indeed a very dark and stormy night in Hythe. It had been a real Kent coast stormy day with furious winds driving torrential rain. Our hopes were not high for a great turn out – we were wrong, very wrong! We had a really good turnout of young and old, men and women.
I followed the usual workshop five-part format: one - introduce the history behind the project, the Westminster Tournament Roll and John Blanke, two - how the Project was a response to those who couldn’t imagine a Black trumpeter at Henry VIII's court, three - examples of contributions to the Project from historians and artists, four – workshop attendees led by Ebun create their own images from their imagination of John Blanke, five – mini symposium with each attendee discussing how they imagined their John Blanke. You can see their results in the video below:
If measured by the comments made while drawing the event went well for example ’this is inspiring’, ‘well worth coming out in spite of the horrible weather’ (a numb er of people said that) , ‘loved having someone help’, ‘I’m loving this’ , ‘this is brilliant’ , ‘fantastic to know about John Blanke, I had no idea’, ‘it’s great being with these other people drawing John Blanke’, ‘what a lovely atmosphere here’, ‘I love the idea of my uncle being John Blanke’, ‘it’s nice to draw with chalk’, ‘I’m impressed with myself.’
I have to single out a lovely little girl who came with her dad, not only did both of them make contributions to the symposium, they left and later returned with another version of John Blanke – a cloth manikin - what the little girl called her ‘model of John Blanke’, couldn’t help but admire her creative John Blanke turban and trumpet!
A very pleasant end to a very enjoyable workshop!
The works will be on display in the Hythe Town Hall till the end of the month.
At last the Old Royal Navel College, Greenwich has found a fit and proper home for the BBC's plaque from David Olusagda 2016 BBC 2 documentary Black British History A Forgotten Story. Previously it had been lost, stuck high up on the wall of the visitor center reception. I've written about how inappropriate that site was. Now the plaque's been moved to a more appropriate site. The Navel College announced this move in a celebratory tweet.
I had the chance to see the plaque in its new location for myself yesterday It is indeed as the College said in its tweet it has 'given [the plaque] pride of place' as it sits among other Tudor articles, objects and artefacts from the Tudor history of the Navel College including objects found whilst the site being excavated - the College sits on the site of one of Henry VIII's favourite palaces - The Palace of Placentia at Greenwich.
John Blanke’s Petition to Henry VIII
National Archive TNA, E101/217/2, no.150
The BBC article on the black British history you may not know about says "[JohnBlanke] petitioned for 8p a day. I don't know what the conversion is today, but that showed he knew his worth." He did indeed successfully petition Henry VIII, it was not for 8p per day but for a pay increase from 8d per day to 16d per day.
The d was an old penny. UK currency was converted to decimal in 1971 when 2.4 old pennies (d) became 1 new pence (p).
John confidently asked for his wage to be doubled as he was ‘true and faithful’ servant who was doing the same job of as trumpeter who had died. His wage went from 3.3p a day to 6.6p per day making his annual pay go from £12 to £24.
What that is worth today is difficult to say as according to Dr Miranda Kaufmann in Black Tudors he had his livery, board and lodging paid like other court servants. But when the court travelled the servants often had to pay for their own accommodation and travel.
From Elizabethan England web
Labourer: £5 to £10
John Blanke: before petition £12 after £24
Ohajuru, M.I. (2020) Before and After the Eighteenth Century: The John Blanke Project. In Grezina, H. G. Britain’s Black Past (pp 7-25). Liverpool: Liverpool University Press
Some time ago Professor Gretchen Gerzina invited me to write a chapter for the book she was editing, developing the black histories she first revealed in her ground-breaking 2016 BBC Radio 4 series Britain’s Black Past. In her radio programme Professor Gerzina vividly brought that past to life as she discussed and debated the lives and times of black folk with experts as they walked together through the places those people lived – the streets of London, Glasgow, Liverpool and elsewhere. Professor Gerzina had the idea to bring the scholarship she uncovered in Britain’s Black Past radio program together in a book which would include not just contributions from those whose research featured but from others reflecting how the field of research has developed since then, and to move beyond those working in academic institutions to include an actor, a lawyer , a museum curator and independent scholars like myself. The result is Britain’s Black Past edited by Gretchen Gerzina and published by Liverpool University Press.
I was humbled and honoured to be invited to make my contribution when I looked at the names Professor Gerzina had invited to take part in the project, many of whom whose worked I had admired and used as part of my own reading and research into Britain’s black history. My chapter is about the John Blanke Project, and further honoured to have it as Chapter One in the book. In the chapter I discuss the genesis and the Project, how it has developed over the years and concludes with my ideas on the importance of the humanities and the imagination at the heart of the project. This was my first time in print and Professor Gerzina was so helpful and considerate, suggesting edits, both in content and style for which I was very grateful. She made the writing editing process much less daunting than I had anticipated, for which I thank her. On the subject of thanks, I would also like to thank Stephen B, Whatley for allowing me to use his version - a beautiful modernist charcoal drawing - of John Blanke in my chapter.
I was particularly pleased to read Kathleen Chater’s chapter on the recovery of Britain’s black past through family and community histories, which mentions What’s Happening in Black British History workshops, for which Doctor Miranda Kaufmann and I are the co-convenors. We bring together academic and community historians just as Professor Gerzina has done in Britain’s Black Past to tell an inclusive story making black British history not just about a black past but a shared past. You can order the book from Amazon or direct from Liverpool University Press.
I was delighted to see an article in the Times last week which featured the black sixteenth century trumpeter who played at the Field of Cloth of Gold event. However now I am saddened to see of the 68 comments on article that the most recommended comment with 35 recommendations was the one by PUSHKIN , they questioned “the insistence of the PC lobby to randomly place black actors in historical dramas” went on to be concerned “that young people will watch black actors playing key historical figures in European history and believe this to factual representation.” ALBION with 28 recommendations was equally concerned at “the blatant hypocrisy of the progressive left; white people cannot culturally appropriate anything of colour”
Both PUSHKIN, ALBION and their fellow recommenders are missing the point of the arts be it a play or a book they are works of the imagination 'formed from images or ideas of objects and situations not actually present to the senses' (Oxford English Dictionary). Their imagination, their senses have failed them. The imagination needs to be challenged and informed, their senses stimulated by critical thinking and an up-to-date world view, in doing so the imagination knows what is fact and what is fiction.
Fake news thrives in a world which does not question it, accepting it as factual, as truth. That essential debate between the imagination and critical thinking challenges such news. In same way Shakespeare plays, many of the comments were concerned about, which had all black casts or black actors in roles they believed were written for white actors are designed to challenge ones world view through your imagination – it gets you thinking, using ones imagination !
So I would urge PUSHKIN, ALBION and their fellow recommenders to open their minds, relax, think creatively and use their critical thinking and imagination - you never know they might discover something new about themselves or their world.
I have very high-resolution - 60meg - images of John Blanke’s two appearances from the 1511 Westminster Tournament Roll, I also have a quarter size 5 metre facsimile of the complete Roll. I have seen countless images of him on line, copies of copies as well as my John Blanke Project’s seventy two interpretations and imaginings of him and his image. So, I can say with some confidence I know what John Blanke’s image looks like what I did not know was what John Blanke’s image felt like until I saw the actual 1511 Westminster Tournament Roll from where those many photographic reproductions came. Last Friday morning I saw the actual Roll itself at the College of Arms.
It was a brilliant, awesome, humbling, extraordinary experience to see the actual Roll, itself, in the flesh, up close, after seeing so many countless reproductions - I was star struck - It looked magnificent, a five-hundred and eight year old document still radiant after all those years. Its reds, greens and blues were still wonderfully luminous. The widespread use of gold leaf throughout the length of the Roll really brought the images to life, from its use in portraying the chains of office of the many figures in the Roll, the ceremonial and jousting tack on the horses and of course the man himself – Henry - each of his appearances is evidenced by much use of gold-leaf on his figure as well as his tents, his horses and his entourage to emphasise his magnificence.
Such is the fragility of the Roll its unrolling for conservation or photography and the like happens very rarely, almost once a generation, though in future this may change. I was truly honoured and humbled to be invited to be part of a small group including myself, Dr Miranda Kaufmann and the College of Arms team to witness its unrolling.
It was unrolled before us in stages, from one roll to another. The eighteen-meter roll was exposed about two meters at a time. From John Blanke’s opening appearance, the parade of the gentlemen of the court, the heralds and persuviants, Henry and his fellow challengers, the central joust scene with Henry and Katherine and the closing scenes with John Blanke and Henry. As it was unrolled and re-rolled each two-meter was discussed and ideas exchanged with much speculation and reflection between us on the characters’ parts in the Roll and the Tudor court and its times.
Now two days later I am still excited, with mental flash backs to what I saw and felt at the time. I cannot at this time say why I was there, other than it was part of a bigger project, when it happens I will be writing about it for sure, meanwhile I would like to leave you with a thought that occurred to me at the time and has not gone away.
Should we return the Benin Bronzes in the British Museum to Nigeria, The Maqdala in the V&A to Ethiopia, Ashanti gold trophy head in The Wallace Collection back to Ghana?
These objects are revered in their respective countries. Those institutions hold on to them with cognitive dissonance acknowledging their 'problematic’ entries in their collections. These pieces were looted, stolen from their original homes, while at the same time continuing to hold on to them with the argument they provide a secure home for the object for the public to view them. I believe that this dissonance really needs to be resolved with the objects being returned to their original homes and owners.
Now I see the Roll in the light of those ‘problematic’ works.
Imagine if the Roll was held by an institution in another distant country, with Britain’s requests for its return being ignored. I would not be alone in being outraged, pressing for its immediate return. It is a document of national importance and significance produced at time when Britain was undergoing great changes. The elaborate Romantic back story to the Tournament of the nineteen year old Henry and his fellow challengers jousting to win the maiden’s heart along with the black trumpeter, John Blanke were cultural and visual evidence for those changes as the Tudor court sought to embrace Europe and its ideas, in direct contrast to what is happening today through BREXIT.
I would demand its return. The many photographic reproductions, no matter how detailed, could or would ever be a substitute for the actual object. The Roll had a physical and emotional presence that could have no surrogate. Yes, I could have a good idea of what John Blanke and the Roll looked like but in no way can any of those copies or reproductions let me know how it felt to be in the presence of the actual Roll.
So now I am even more convinced we should, no must, return the Benin Bronzes in the British Museum to Nigeria, The Maqdala in the V&A to Ethiopia and Ashanti gold trophy head in The Wallace Collection back to Ghana so their rightful owners can move on from looking at reproductions to feeling their cherished object’s actual presence.
I would like to close by thanking all those who made this happen for me. I will write more about them and the event once the Project is concluded meanwhile they all have my eternal gratitude.
6th May 2019
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